As a noun, 'without' is rare and typically refers to the external parts or the outside of something.
'Without' can be used to denote the exterior of a place or thing.
The without of the building was adorned with intricate carvings.
From the without, the fortress seemed impenetrable.
Like its adverbial use, the noun form of 'without' is also somewhat archaic and is more commonly found in older texts or poetic expressions.
As a preposition, 'without' primarily indicates the absence or lack of something. It can also denote the conditions under which something occurs.
'Without' can be used to show that something is not present or is lacking. It can also describe the circumstances under which an action takes place, especially when something expected is absent.
She left without her purse.
It's hard to imagine life without the internet.
He managed to finish the task without any help.
'Without' can sometimes emphasize the unexpected nature of an action given the absence of something, as in 'He succeeded without any formal training.'
As an adverb, 'without' is used less frequently and typically means 'on the outside' or 'externally.'
'Without' can be used to describe something that is outside as opposed to inside.
The beast lurked without, waiting for an opportunity to strike.
The castle stood tall, its defenders both within and without.
This adverbial use of 'without' is somewhat archaic and is more commonly found in older literature or poetic contexts.