Arabic Alphabet

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Arabic is written from right to left and consists of 28 letters. The alphabet plays a crucial role in the Islamic world and has a profound literary heritage. In this guide, you'll discover the structure of the Arabic alphabet and its unique characteristics.

Basic Structure of the Arabic Alphabet

There 28 Arabic letters, all of which are consonants. Unlike English, the Arabic script doesn't represent short vowels, but we'll explore this further below.

Arabic alphabet
Letter NameInitialMedialFinalSeparateLetter Pronunciation
alifاـاـااpoints on using long vowel /aa/
baaبــبــبب'b' as in 'bat'
taaتــتــتت't' as in 'tap'
thaaثــثــثث'th' as in 'think'
jiimجــجــجج'j' as in 'jam'
Haaحــحــححno equivalent; imagine that you are trying to fog up a mirror blowing “haaa”
khaaخــخــخخ'ch' in Scottish 'loch' or German ‘Bach’
daalدـدـدد'd' as in 'dog'
dhaalذـذـذذ‘th’ like in ‘that’
raرـرـررrolled ‘r’ like when cat purrs
zayزـزـزز'z' as in 'zebra'
siinســســسس's' as in 'snake'
shiinشــشــشش'sh' as in 'sheep'
Saadصــصــصصvery similar sound to /ss/
Daadضــضــضضemphatic ‘d’ sound: it is said with a tighter throat and more force than the normal "D" sound
Taaطــطــططemphatic 't' sound
Dhaaظــظــظظemphatic 'th' sound
hainعــعــععno English equivalent; very similar to stop between ‘i’ and ‘i’ in ‘Hawaii’
ghainغــغــغغa grunting ‘r’; similar to pronouncing ‘r’ in French
faaفــفــفف'f' as in 'fun'
qaafقــقــققno equivalent; sound is made by pressing the back of your tongue against the soft, hanging part at the back of your throat
kaafكــكــكك'k' as in 'kite'
laamلــلــلل'l' as in 'lamp'
miimمــمــمم'm' as in 'man'
nuunنــنــنن'n' as in 'not'
haaهــهــهه'h' as in 'hat'
waawوـوـووpoints on using long vowel 'oo' as in 'root' or ‘w’ as in ‘wet’
yaaيــيــييpoints on using long vowel  'ee' as in ‘feet’ or ‘y’ as in ‘yeti’

The system of representing Arabic in English alphabet characters allows for a more accessible introduction to Arabic pronunciation, but it's worth noting that it may not capture all the unique sounds and intricacies of the original script.

Although there are some similar sounds of Arabic in English, a lot of unique sounds in the Arabic alphabet that don't have any equivalent in other languages. That is, this language might be complex for many learners. However, with practice and dedication, you will get there.

Uniqueness of Arabic Letterforms

The uniqueness of Arabic letterforms, with their four distinct shapes based on position within a word, presents a challenge when representing Arabic letters in English, as the English alphabet does not have an equivalent system of contextual forms. This characteristic is unique to the Arabic script and is related to the way the language is written and its aesthetic features. Here's why Arabic letters have these four forms:

  1. Cursive Script. Arabic is written in a cursive style where letters within a word are usually connected to one another. This necessitates different forms to enable smooth connections between letters.
  2. Writing Direction. Arabic is written from right to left, so the connectivity of letters needs to adapt to this direction. The four forms help in achieving a consistent and fluid flow in writing.
  3. Aesthetic Considerations. The different forms of each letter contribute to the visual beauty and artistic nature of Arabic calligraphy. The intricate connections and variations in form are essential to the visual appeal of written Arabic.
  4. Linguistic Efficiency. The four forms facilitate the reading and writing process by creating clear demarcations between words and maintaining legibility. It helps readers identify the beginning, middle, and end of words.
  5. Lack of Vowel Consistency. Since short vowels are often not written in Arabic, the consonants and their forms carry much of the phonetic information, aiding in comprehension even when vowels are omitted.

The complexity of the four forms adds to the richness of the Arabic script and has deep historical and cultural significance. Understanding these forms is essential for anyone learning to read or write Arabic, as they are integral to both the visual appearance and the function of the written language.

Vowels in Arabic Alphabet

Although there are no vowels among letters in the basic Arabic alphabet, this language has several vowel sounds. 

Short Vowels

Short vowels in Arabic are not considered separate letters but are indicated by diacritical marks placed above or below the consonant they follow. These Arabic symbols are crucial in determining the pronunciation of words. Here's a description of the three short vowels:

  1. Fatha (ـَ):
    1. Pronunciation: similar to the 'a' sound in 'cat.'
    2. Usage: placed above the consonant.
    3. Example: بَت /bat/ - duck.
  2. Kasra (ـِ):
    1. Pronunciation: similar to the 'i' sound in 'sit.'
    2. Usage: placed below the consonant.
    3. Example: بِت /bit/ - house.
  3. Damma (ـُ):
    1. Pronunciation: similar to the 'u' sound in 'put.'
    2. Usage: placed above the consonant.
    3. Example: بُت /but/ - button.

Short vowels are often omitted in everyday writing but you may find a lot of these Arabic symbols in the Quran, poetry, and texts for learners to guide correct pronunciation.

Long Vowels

Long vowels are pronounced for a longer duration than short vowels. In Arabic, they are represented by specific letters and are integral to the script. Here are the three long vowels:

  1. Alif (ا):
    1. Pronunciation: a lengthened 'a' sound, similar to 'a' in 'father.'
    2. Usage: often follows a consonant with a Fatha.
    3. Example: مَدرَسة /madrasa/ - school.
  2. Waw (و):
    1. Pronunciation: A lengthened 'u' sound, similar to 'oo' in 'food.'
    2. Usage: often follows a consonant with a Damma.
    3. Example: قُرءان /Qur'ān/ - Quran.
  3. Ya (ي):
    1. Pronunciation: a lengthened 'i' sound, similar to 'ee' in 'see.'
    2. Usage: often follows a consonant with a Kasra.
    3. Example: فِيل /fīl/ - elephant.

Unlike short vowels, which are denoted by diacritical marks and might not always be written, long vowels are always written. Long vowels in Arabic are crucial for understanding the structure and pronunciation of words. They not only lengthen the sound but can also change the meaning of words, making them integral to proper communication in Arabic.

Special Cases

There are also some special cases that don't belong to long or short vowels:

  1. Alif Maqsurah (ى): 
    1. Usage: in certain grammatical contexts and resembles the letter "Ya" without dots. 
    2. Pronunciation: same as "Alif."
    3. Example: هُدى /hudá/ - guidance
  2. Sukun (ـْ): A diacritical mark that indicates the absence of a vowel after a consonant. 
    1. Example: رَسُلْ (rasūl) - messenger
    2. Pronunciation: 'ra-sūl'

Understanding short and long vowels is essential in Arabic, as they influence both the pronunciation and meaning of words. Short vowels, marked by diacritics, are usually found in formal texts and religious scriptures, while long vowels are inherent to the Arabic script. Mastery of these vowels will enhance your reading, writing, and speaking skills in Arabic, providing a strong foundation for communication in this rich and complex language.


Digraphs in Arabic refer to combinations of two letters that produce a unique sound that is different from the sounds of the individual letters. Unlike many Latin-based languages, where digraphs are often composed of vowels or a combination of vowels and consonants, Arabic digraphs are primarily formed by joining consonants. These combinations often occur to represent sounds that don't have individual letter equivalents in Arabic.

Here are some prominent examples of digraphs in Arabic:

  1. laam + alif (ل + ا = لا)
    1. Pronunciation: 'lā,' similar to 'la' in 'laugh.'
    2. Usage: this combination is used frequently. An example is the word "لا"/lā/, which means 'no.'
  2. laam + laam (ل + ل = لل)
    1. Pronunciation: 'll,' as in 'all.'
    2. Usage: commonly found in the definite article "ال" (al), as in "البيت"/al-bayt/, meaning 'the house.'
  3. jiim + haa (ج + ح = جح)
    1. Pronunciation: a complex sound pronounced with the middle of the tongue against the hard roof of the mouth (jiim) followed by the throat's deep sound (haa).
    2. Usage: found in words like "جحش"/juḥush/, meaning 'foal.'
  4. siin + haa (س + ح = سح)
    1. Pronunciation: a combination of the 's' sound (siin) and the throaty 'ḥ' sound (haa).
    2. Usage: an example is "سحر"/siḥr/, meaning 'magic.'
  5. khaa + hain (خ + ع = خع)
    1. Pronunciation: a blend of the throaty 'kh' sound and the deep pharyngeal "ain' sound.
    2. Usage: an example is "خعخع"/kha'kha'/, meaning 'chattering.'

Digraphs in Arabic create unique sounds and often convey specific meanings. Their presence in the language adds a layer of complexity and richness, enabling the expression of a broader range of sounds and concepts. Understanding and mastering these digraphs are essential for reading and speaking Arabic accurately, particularly as they appear in various contexts, from Modern Standard Arabic to different dialects.


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The Arabic alphabet, with its unique letters, diacritical marks, and right-to-left orientation, offers a fascinating study for language learners like you. By understanding these features, you've taken a significant step toward engaging with this rich language. Enjoy the journey, and immerse yourself further in Arabic culture and literature!


How many letters are in the Arabic alphabet?

There are 28 letters in the Arabic alphabet. Although all of them are treated as consonants, three letters are used to represent long vowels. Also, there are three diacritical marks that represent short vowels.

How to learn the Arabic alphabet in English?

You can use different words in English to find equivalent sounds among Arabic letters in words. However, many Arabic letters have a unique pronunciation that doesn’t have similarities with any other language. Even learning the Arabic alphabet in English, you have to listen to native Arabic speakers to understand the clear pronunciation.

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Muhammad Ali Firoz Nov 1st, 2023
I rely like Arabic