Spanish Alphabet

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Letters are the fundament of any word, so the alphabet is a must thing to learn in any language. Spanish alphabet looks similar to English since they both evolved from Latin. However, letters in the Spanish alphabet have different pronunciations. Understanding the Spanish alphabet is the cornerstone of your journey to mastering this popular language, and in this article, you will learn the modern alphabet and key rules to use it.

Components of the Spanish Alphabet

There are 27 letters in the Spanish alphabet. Here is the actual Spanish alphabet pronunciation and letter names:

Spanish alphabet
LetterPhonetic TranscriptionName of the letter
W/oo-veh/doblleh/uve doble
Y/ee-griega/i griega

The Ñ (pronounced "en-yeh") is special to the Spanish alphabet, representing a unique sound not found in English. Spanish also features accents, which are essential to the language's phonetics and grammar.

Pronunciation Guide

Pronunciation is key to Spanish fluency. Understanding how to pronounce each letter correctly will assist you in speaking and understanding Spanish.

Vowels: a, e, i, o, u

Unlike English, Spanish vowels have only one sound each. "A" sounds like 'ah,' "E" sounds like 'eh,' "I" sounds like 'ee,' "O" sounds like 'oh,' and "U" sounds like 'oo.'


Most consonants in Spanish have similar sounds to their English counterparts, with some exceptions. For example, "H" is always silent, "J" sounds like the 'h' in 'hat,' and "V" is pronounced like 'b.'

Letter "G" With Vowels

In Spanish, the pronunciation of "g" before vowels can vary depending on the vowel that follows it. There are specific rules for how "g" is pronounced in different situations:

G + "a," "o," "u," and G + "ue," "ui": In these cases, "g" is pronounced as a hard "g" sound, similar to the English "go" or "get." Here are some examples:

  • gato /ˈɡ - cat;
  • guitarra /ɡiˈta.ra/ - guitar;
  • guiso /ˈɡ - stew;
  • gusto /ˈɡ - taste.

G + "e," "i": In these cases, "g" is pronounced as a soft "h" sound, similar to the "h" in the English word "hello."

  • gente /ˈhɛn.te/ - people;
  • girasol /ˈhi.ra.sol/ - sunflower.

Special Letter Ñ Pronunciation Rules

In Spanish alphabet, the letter "ñ" (called "eñe") represents a unique sound that does not exist in English. The "ñ" sound is a palatal nasal, similar to the "ny" sound in the English word "canyon." Here are some examples:

  • niño /ˈni.ɲo/ - boy or child;
  • mañana /ma.ˈɲa.ɲa/ - tomorrow;
  • señor /se.ˈɲor/ - mister, sir;
  • baño /ˈba.ɲo/ - bathroom.

When you encounter a word with "ñ," remember to make a nasal sound while keeping the tip of your tongue against the hard palate in your mouth. With practice, you'll be able to incorporate the "ñ" sound seamlessly in your Spanish speech.

Reading Digraphs in Spanish

Language is dynamic, and the Spanish alphabet is no exception. In 2010, the Royal Spanish Academy officially reduced the alphabet's length from 29 to 27 letters, omitting "ch" and "ll." However, they are still used as digraphs in words.

How to pronounce ch in Spanish

In Spanish, the digraph "ch" represents a single sound, which is different from the individual sounds of "c" and "h" when they appear separately. The "ch" sound in Spanish is similar to the English "ch" in "chat" or "chocolate." Here are some examples:

  • chico /ˈtʃi.ko/ - boy;
  • mucho /ˈmu.tʃo/ - much, many;
  • chocolate /tʃo.ko.ˈla.te/ - chocolate;
  • búsqueda /buˈkes.ta/ - search.

It is important to note that the "ch" sound in Spanish is always consistent and does not change based on the surrounding letters or sounds.

How to pronounce ll in Spanish

In Spanish, the pronunciation of "ll" can vary depending on the region and the specific word:

  1. /sh/ sound is mostly used for "ll" in Buenos Aires (Argentina) and Santa Fe (Uruguay). It's pronounced like in words "shop" or "shelter" in English.
  2. /j/ is a bit soft, like in "jungle" or "Jimmy." Such pronunciation is widespread in some regions of Venezuela and Colombia. You may also hear it in other Argentinian regions, except Buenos Aires. 
  3. /y/ sounds like in "yesterday" or "yelp." This pronunciation is widespread in Spain, Mexico, Central America, and some countries of Latin America, including Chile, Peru, Bolivia, and Cuba.
  4. /ly/ sounds like combination of “l”+”y” is also widely used in Spain. For example, you can hear such pronunciation: lluiva /lyuveeah/ - rain, llorar /lyorar/ - to cry.

As you can see, the digraph "LL" can have many variations within each country or region. So, learning Spanish, you have to pay attention to this diversity and listen carefully to how natives pronounce it in different countries.

Differences between R and RR

For Spanish language learners, it is important to understand the pronunciation differences between "r" and "rr" since it might change the meaning of the word. Here are some examples:

  • Perro /ˈ - "dog," but Pero /ˈpe.ɾo/ - "but”;
  • Rato /ˈ - "a while" or "mouse," but Raro /ˈra.ɾo/ - "strange" or "rare";
  • Barro /ˈ - "mud" or "clay," but Baro /ˈba.ɾo/ - "baron" (a noble title).

Compared to English, try to pronounce such words as "daddy" or "butter" and focus on the moves of your tongue. "R" in Spanish is very similar to soft "D" or "T" sounds in English. "RR" sounds like a rolled "R." To understand it, try to purr like a cat and notice the actions of your tongue.

Understanding Diacritical Marks

In Spanish, the emphasis typically falls on the second-to-last syllable of words. Words ending in a vowel, 'n,' or 's,' stress the second-to-last syllable, while those ending in a consonant (except 'n' or 's') stress the last syllable. However, accent marks can change the emphasis. 

Role of Acute Accent in Spanish

In Spanish, the acute accent (') is used to indicate the stress or emphasis on a particular syllable in a word.

Example: música /ˈ - here, the acute accent is used over the letter "ú" to indicate that the stress falls on the "u" syllable. The word means "music." Without the acute accent, the word would be "musica"/mu.ˈsi.ka/, and the stress would be on the second syllable.

The acute accent is a crucial element in Spanish spelling, as it helps differentiate between words that may have the same letters but different meanings and pronunciations depending on where the stress is placed.

Important note. Accents can also change the meaning of a word entirely. For example, "si" means 'if,' but "sí" means 'yes.' The acute accent (') indicates stress placement and differentiates homonyms. 

The Use of Diaeresis

In Spanish, the diaeresis (¨) is used to indicate that two vowels are usually pronounced as separate syllables. It is commonly used with the letter "u" in the combinations "gue" and "gui" when the "u" is intended to be pronounced. Without the diaeresis, the "u" in these combinations would usually be silent.

Example: pingüino /pin-ˈgwi-no/ - here, the diaeresis is used over the letter "u" in "güi" (gue + i) to indicate that the "u" is pronounced. The word means "penguin."

Without the diaeresis, the word would be "pinguino"/pin-ˈgi-no/, and the "u" would be silent.

Please note that the use of the diaeresis in Spanish is relatively limited compared to other languages, and it is mainly used to distinguish the pronunciation in specific cases like the one mentioned above.


Learn the Spanish Alphabet with Promova

Spanish alphabet seems to be very similar to English until you spot the difference in pronunciation in various regions. So, beyond mastering the language itself, understanding cultural differences is essential for effective communication. Promova goes beyond just language proficiency and offers a unique approach to learning, emphasizing cultural insights and nuances that play a significant role in conversations: 

  • learn interesting facts through quizzes;
  • practice pronunciation through listening to words;
  • improve the use of language through exercises with spelling and sentences.

By exploring the diverse customs, traditions, and social etiquettes of different Spanish-speaking regions, learners gain a deeper appreciation for the language's context and relevance. 

Promova language-learning platform ensures that you not only speak Spanish fluently but also engage confidently with native speakers, showing respect for their culture and building strong connections. Download the Promova application and embrace the joy of language learning, becoming a culturally aware and linguistically adept Spanish speaker.


Understanding the Spanish alphabet is crucial when learning the language. Not only will it improve your pronunciation, but it will also help you read and write in Spanish. Your journey might seem challenging at first, but remember that every expert was once a beginner.


How many letters are in the Spanish alphabet?

Before 2010 there were 29 Spanish alphabet letters. Then Royal Spanish Academy presented a simplified alphabet without "ll" and "ch", making them digraphs. The modern Spanish alphabet consists of 27 letters.

How to say the alphabet in Spanish? 

There are two words for the alphabet in Spanish, "abecedario" and "alfabeto." Abecedario is borrowed from Late Latin "abecedārius," which means “alphabetical.”

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