Viking Verbal Victories: Words That Raided the English Language

Elly Kimreviewed byKateryna Protsenko / more about Editorial Process9 min
Created: Jun 20, 2023Last updated: Feb 1, 2024
Viking Words

Ahoy, fellow learners, and welcome aboard! Today, we are setting sail on a linguistic raid like no other. Prepare to embark on an adventurous journey as we delve into the intriguing and exciting world of Viking words. We will uncover the captivating story of how these fearless northern invaders influenced and shaped the English language. So, hoist the sails, and let’s explore the famous Old Norse terms that have left an indelible mark on the English we speak today.

The Brief History of Norse Words in English

To understand the reasons behind the amount of Viking terms in today’s English vocabulary, we need to dive into important historical events. It all started hundreds of years ago, in the late VIII century. Today, we call this period the Viking Age, which continued until the XI century. It was when fearless warriors from Scandinavia embarked on raids and exploration and eventually settled in various parts of England. 

The Vikings, mostly of Norwegian, Danish, and Swedish origins, brought their language and many Old Norse words. And when they encountered Anglo-Saxon inhabitants, they started to communicate and interact with locals the only way they could. The Viking’s activities weren’t just sporadic raids; Northerners also established settlements and trading posts. Eventually, it led to the significant integration of Norse words into the English vocabulary.

Over time, as English evolved, the pronunciation and spelling of Viking words changed to align with the phonetics of the language. However, the influence of Scandinavians remains deeply ingrained in the modern lexicon. And believe us, you will be surprised by how many casual words with Norse origins you use in daily conversations. 

Norse Words and Days of the Week: The Unexpected Connection

What is the first thing that comes to mind when you think about Nordic words? Probably, something unusual like “fjord” or “Ragnarök.” While these terms indeed come from Viking vocabulary, there are simpler examples of Norse words in English. And when we say simpler, we mean something as casual as the days of the week, one of the first things English students learn. 

  • Monday – Manadagr – Máni’s Day. Although there are some debates about the origin of the first day of the week’s name, many people believe it comes from Northern mythology. This day is named after the god Máni, who represented the Moon. Vikings believed that he drove a chariot through the night sky. 
  • Tuesday – Tysdagr – Tyr’s Day (Tiw’s Day). The second day of the week is also called after the Norse mythology character, Tyr – son of Odin. This god was associated with bravery and war. In Old English, he was also called Tiw or Tiu. 
  • Wednesday – Odinsdagr – Odin’s Day. Odin was the chief god in Norse mythology, also known as the All-Father, and the ruler of the gods. The main honor for Vikings was to die in battle, enter Valhalla, join Odin, and have a drink with him. And the third day of the week is named after this almighty character.
  • Thursday – Þórsdagr – Thor’s Day. We all know Thor, right? Well, at least our fellow Marvel (or Chris Hemsworth’s) fans do. But the original god of thunder came from Norse mythology, and his fame and bravery were captured in the name of the fourth day of the week. 
  • Friday – Frjadagr – Freya’s and Frigg’s Day. The name of this weekday is connected with two Norse goddesses – Freya and Frigg. Both are associated with similar areas – love, fertility, motherhood, magic, and war. Freya was Odin’s concubine and Frigg – Odin’s wife, the Queen of Gods. 
  • Sunday – Sunnadagr – Sól’s Day. The last (or first in the US) day of the week is named after the sister of Máni called Sól or Sunna. Vikings referred to her as the goddess of the Sun, who, like her brother, drove a chariot through the sky, but during the day.

Saturday is the only day that didn’t take its name from Viking slang. It originated in Roman mythology, where they call it “Saturn’s Day.” But as you can see, the Norse language significantly impacted our modern vocabulary. So, let’s explore some other terms and expressions we took from the Scandinavian lexicon.


Viking Terms in Everyday Life

We use Norse terms in different areas, from specific ones like maritime studies or geography to more common ones, describing emotions or everyday objects. Below, you can find an expansive list of Viking words in English and their origins. 

  • Ugly.

Surprise! This not-very-pleasant yet familiar word comes from the Norse word “uggligr,” meaning “fearful” or “dreadful.” In modern language, we use it to describe something unattractive or unpleasant in appearance. For example:

I don’t want to wear this ugly sweater to school.

This outfit is rather ugly than stylish. 

  • Thrift. 

I’m gonna pop some tags, only got $20 in my pocket…sorry, we’ve got distracted. Today, we use this term to refer to the concept of being economical or frugal with money. However, it had a different meaning in the Norse lexicon: “prosperity” and “success.” Here are the examples of using it in modern circumstances:

I like going to a thrift shop with my friend Sarah; it is a perfect place to find affordable vintage clothes and household items. 

Kate’s grandmother taught her the value of thrift by showing her how to save money and make wise purchasing decisions.

  • Anger.

This term comes from the Old Norse word “angr,” meaning “grief” or “sorrow.” Today, it refers to a strong feeling of displeasure or frustration. Here are a couple of examples:

His sudden outburst of anger startled everyone in the room.

Take a deep breath and count to ten when you feel anger rising.

  • Knife.

Here’s a slicing fact: even this kitchen utensil’s name originates from Norse terms. Initially, it was called “knífr” and was also used to describe a tool with a sharp blade for cutting or stabbing. For example:

Please pass me the knife so I can make some sandwiches.

He used a knife to carve the intricate design into the wood carefully.

  • Husband.

Ah, love and commitment! The word “husband” also has its roots in the Viking lexicon and comes from the term “húsbóndi,” meaning “master of the house.” We use its modern form to define a married man. For example:

Tom has been a loving and supportive husband to his wife for over 30 years.

She introduced her husband as her partner and her best friend.

  • Steak.

This juicy word can be traced to the Old Norse word “steik,” which meant “to roast” or “to fry.” Its modern alternative refers to a delicious slab of meat, often cooked to perfection. Yum! Check out these examples:

I’ll have the sirloin steak cooked medium-rare, please.

The aroma of grilled steak makes everyone’s mouths water.

  • Egg.

We don’t know which came first, the chicken or the egg, but we do know that the word “egg” comes from the Old Norse language. Moreover, it even remains the exact spelling! We believe you understand what this term refers to (and if not, it’s this oval-shaped thing you usually eat for breakfast). For example:

Could you pass me an egg from a carton?

She carefully cracked the egg into the bowl to prepare the cream for her cake.

Bonus! 3 Norse Terms That (Unfortunately) Don’t Have English Alternatives

As you can see, the Old Norse language brought countless treasures into the modern vocabulary. But alas, some Scandinavian words still don’t have alternatives in English. And it is very upsetting because some of these terms are really cool. Learn some examples below, and surprise your friends with an extraordinary and unique vocabulary.

This Norwegian term is probably the most beautiful on our list, as it describes an exciting feeling you experience when falling in love. Remember that rollercoaster of emotions when your heart does a happy dance? This term perfectly captures an exhilarating and magical butterflies-in-your-stomach sensation.

  • Kura skymning.

Now, close your eyes (of course, after reading it) and imagine this: the sun begins its descent, painting the sky into a palette of soft and warm colors. That’s when the Swedes embrace “kyra skymning.” Verbatim, this term means “sitting quietly and pondering at dusk.” It’s the art of cozying up, wrapping yourself in a blanket, and enjoying the enchanting beauty of twilight.

  • Hygge. 

Ah, and this is our favorite one. The Danes know precisely how to have a great time at home, and they don’t have to describe it using tons of useless words. They have one term – hygge – that encompasses a feeling of coziness, comfort, and contentment. It is a concept deeply rooted in Danish culture and is often associated with creating a warm and inviting atmosphere.

Conquering Viking Words in English with Promova

Learning English can sometimes feel like a grand Viking adventure, requiring skill, effort, and hard work. But fear not! We have the perfect guide to help you on your journey. Let us introduce you to Promova, a language-learning platform that makes your studying experience exciting and rewarding. With Promova, you’ll have all the tools and support you need to conquer the English language confidently.

So what can you expect here? For starters, there are engaging and helpful lessons with a team of professional tutors. They are happy to help you achieve your goals in both personal and group classes. And to make this opportunity even more exciting, we invite you to try our free trial lessons, where you can glance at the studying process before making the final decision.

If you prefer studying on the go, say no more! Promova offers a convenient, user-friendly application for iOS and Android devices. Here, you can not only access dozens of unique lessons and materials, but also track your progress and study anywhere and anytime you want. And don’t forget about our free Conversation Club – the best place to meet people worldwide, discuss engaging topics, and practice your speaking skills. Promova offers endless opportunities, so why don’t you choose the best one for yourself?


Now, as we conclude our linguistic voyage, let us appreciate the treasures gifted to us by the Vikings. The Norse terms embedded in our vocabulary are the best proof of the legacy of these brave warriors and their contribution to English. So, the next time you use words with Old Norse origins, let it be a reminder of our languages’ rich history and interconnectivity.


Are Norse terms the only loanwords in English?

No, these are not the only loanwords in the language. Throughout history, English has assimilated words from Latin, French, Greek, Arabic, and many other languages, resulting in our diverse vocabulary.

What are the best movies and TV shows to learn Viking words and phrases?

If you’re interested in learning Viking vocabulary through pop culture, there are several excellent options to consider. Our favorite ones include the historical TV shows Vikings, The Last Kingdom, and the movie Valhalla Rising.

Are there any regions within the English-speaking world where Norse influence is particularly strong?

Although Norse influence can be found throughout most English-speaking countries, there are some regions where this impact is particularly noticeable. One of the examples is the British Isles, which were directly affected by Viking invasions and settlements during the Viking Age. Places like Scotland, northern England, and the Isle of Man have notable Norse heritage, with traces of Old Norse language and culture.

How has the usage of Norse words in English evolved?

As English continued to develop, the pronunciation, spelling, and sometimes meanings of Norse words transformed, adapting to the changing linguistic landscape. Some words, like “ugly” or “husband,” that initially had specific Norse connotations have broadened their meanings or taken on new nuances in English. However, other terms, including “egg” and “knife,” remain the exact spelling and definition.


PromovaAug 15th, 2023
Viking words have left a lasting impact on the English language through their incorporation into everyday vocabulary. Many common words related to everyday life, such as "sky," "egg," "window," and "law," have their roots in Old Norse, the language of the Vikings. This linguistic influence enriches English with a diverse range of words that reflect the historical and cultural interactions between the Vikings and the English.
Theo MccarthyAug 15th, 2023
how have viking words left a lasting impact on the english language?