# Roman Numerals and English Equivalents

reviewed byKateryna Protsenko

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Roman numerals are a fascinating and ancient numerical system that has been used for centuries. They are a unique way of representing numbers using letters, and they have been used in everything from clocks to movie credits.

Learning Roman numerals is an essential skill for language learners, as it can help them understand historical documents, literature, and even modern-day applications. It is also a great way to improve overall numeracy skills and expand their vocabulary

In this article, we will explore the basics of Roman numerals so you can understand what number is X, L, MX and will be able to create different numbers individually.

## Basic Roman Numerals Vocabulary

Behold, the fundamental lexicon of Roman numerals! Herein lies the elucidation of the symbols I, V, X, L, C, D, and M. These symbols are the building blocks of the Roman numeral system, and with them, one can express any number with ease. To begin, let us examine each symbol in turn.

• I - One
• V - Five
• X - Ten
• L - Fifty
• C - One hundred
• D - Five hundred
• M - One thousand

To write the number two, one would simply combine two I's, resulting in II. The number three would be III, and so on. To write the number four, it is necessary to subtract one from five, resulting in IV. Similarly, to write the number nine, one would subtract one from ten, resulting in IX.

XX number stands for 20 through combining X number two times. To write the number forty, you will subtract ten from 50, resulting in XL. To write the number ninety, one would subtract ten from one hundred, resulting in XC.

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In this chapter, we shall delve into the methods of creating advanced roman numerals, including the elusive subtractive, the straightforward addition, the repetitive, and the non-repetitive.

1. Subtractive notation. This method involves placing a smaller numeral before a larger one to indicate subtraction. For instance, IV represents four, as I (one) is subtracted from V (five).
2. Addition notation. It simply involves adding numerals together. For example, VII in Roman numerals is equivalent to 7 by adding V to I and I.
3. Repetition notation. This is a clever way to save space and ink. It involves placing a horizontal line above a numeral to indicate multiplication by one thousand. Thus, a line above X (ten) yields ten thousand, or X̄.
4. Non-repetition notation. It is used when a numeral appears more than three times in a row. In this case, the numeral is written once, followed by a horizontal line to indicate multiplication by one thousand. For example, 4000 is written as IV̄.

Now, let us put our newfound knowledge to the test with some examples. The number 49 can be written as XLIX, using subtractive notation for 40 (XL) and 9 (IX). And so it goes, with each number being expressed through the clever combination of these symbols. To aid in this endeavor, we provide some numerals in a list, along with their English equivalent:

This table helps you to understand what number is X and how to use it correctly, creating more advanced Roman numerals.

## Common Use of Roman Numerals

The versatile and timeless Roman numerals! These ancient symbols have found their way into various aspects of our lives, from the pages of books to the annals of history. Here are some of the common uses of these numerals:

1. Numbering Pages. Roman numerals are often used to number the pages of books, especially in the front matter. This includes the table of contents, preface, and introduction. For example, a book may have pages numbered with Roman numerals from I to XII for the front matter and then switch to Arabic numerals for the rest of the book.
2. Chapters and Volumes of Books. Roman numerals are also used to indicate the chapters and volumes of books. This is particularly common in older books, where each chapter or volume is given a Roman numeral. For example, a book with three volumes may have them numbered I, II, and III, while each volume may have chapters numbered with Roman numerals as well.
3. Indicating Dates and Years. Roman numerals are often used to indicate dates and years, especially in formal contexts. For example, the year 2021 can be written as MMXXI in Roman numerals. Similarly, dates such as July 4, 1776, can be written as VII IV MDCCLXXVI.
4. Naming Monarchs and Popes. Roman numerals are commonly used to distinguish monarchs and popes with the same name. For example, King Henry VIII of England is known as such because he was the eighth king named Henry. Similarly, Pope John Paul II was the second pope named John Paul, so he is often referred to as John Paul II.

In conclusion, Roman numerals have a wide range of uses that have stood the test of time. From numbering pages to naming monarchs, their versatility and elegance make them a timeless choice for any occasion.

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