# Sum past tense

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Learn past tenses to communicate in English accurately

## Meaning of sum

to calculate the total of (numbers or quantities).

### Infinitive

Word: swim /swɪm/
Examples:
• 1. The cashier quickly sums the total of my groceries at checkout.
• 2. Jake always sums up our group expenses to ensure everyone contributes equally.
• 3. She sums the number of attendees to confirm the reservation size.

### Past Simple

Word: summed /sʌmd/
Examples:
• 1. I quickly summed up the expenses and realized we had overspent on our budget.
• 2. She summed the scores and announced the winner of the competition.
• 3. They summed their experiences of the trip and decided it was one of their best adventures.

### Past Participle

Word: summed /sʌmd/
Examples:
• 1. The bill was summed up correctly by the accountant.
• 2. All the data has been summed into the final report.
• 3. The complex equation was finally summed by the mathematician.

Master verb forms with Promova!

#### Bare infinitive

1. To describe habitual actions or routines involving calculating totals of numbers or quantities.
Example. She sums the expenses at the end of each month to track her budget.
Example. This calculator sums up figures more quickly than I can do manually.
Example. To determine your grade, sum all the scores and divide by the number of tests.
2. To state facts or general truths about the act of summing or calculating totals.
Example. She sums the expenses at the end of each month to track her budget.
Example. This calculator sums up figures more quickly than I can do manually.
Example. To determine your grade, sum all the scores and divide by the number of tests.
3. To give instructions or advice related to the process of totaling numbers or quantities.
Example. She sums the expenses at the end of each month to track her budget.
Example. This calculator sums up figures more quickly than I can do manually.
Example. To determine your grade, sum all the scores and divide by the number of tests.

#### Past Simple

1. To talk about a specific instance in the past when someone calculated the total of numbers or quantities.
Example. After the fundraiser, we summed the donations and were thrilled with the total.
Example. We summed the results of each experiment for the final report.
Example. He summed the figures incorrectly and had to redo the calculations.
2. To describe a series of actions in the past that involved summing or calculating totals.
Example. After the fundraiser, we summed the donations and were thrilled with the total.
Example. We summed the results of each experiment for the final report.
Example. He summed the figures incorrectly and had to redo the calculations.
3. To express a past action of totaling numbers or quantities that is complete.
Example. After the fundraiser, we summed the donations and were thrilled with the total.
Example. We summed the results of each experiment for the final report.
Example. He summed the figures incorrectly and had to redo the calculations.

#### Past Participle

1. Perfect tenses - To talk about actions of calculating the total of numbers or quantities that have happened, with relevance to the present moment or completed at an unspecified time in the past.
Example. The final tally was summed by the committee before announcing the results.
2. Example (Present Perfect). They have summed the costs, and the project is over budget.
Example. The final tally was summed by the committee before announcing the results.
3. Example (Past Perfect). By the time the meeting started, the accountant had already summed the quarterly earnings.
Example. The final tally was summed by the committee before announcing the results.
4. Passive voice - To describe situations where the focus is on numbers or quantities being totaled, rather than who performed the summing.
Example. The final tally was summed by the committee before announcing the results.

## Common mistakes

— 01

##### Double Consonant

A frequent mistake is either not doubling the final 'm' when moving from 'sum' to 'summed' or mistakenly doubling the consonant in verbs where this rule doesn't apply. The correct form, 'summed,' adheres to the rule that if a verb ends in a consonant + vowel + consonant, and the stress is on the final syllable (or in this case, with a single syllable verb), the final consonant is doubled before adding '-ed.' Learners might incorrectly write 'sumed' instead of 'summed.'

— 02

##### Pronunciation

Pronouncing the past simple and past participle forms as /sʌmd/ with a clear 'd' sound at the end can be challenging for some. Learners might mispronounce it, either by softening the 'd' sound too much or by blending it awkwardly with the preceding 'm,' making it hard to discern they've used a past form. Ensuring the 'd' sound is distinct is crucial for clear communication.

— 03

##### Irregular Verb Patterns

Given the multitude of irregular verbs in English, some learners might mistakenly believe 'sum' follows an irregular pattern when it comes to its past forms. They could attempt to apply an irregular form that doesn't exist, such as 'sum' becoming something other than 'summed.' Recognizing that 'sum' follows a regular verb pattern and uses 'summed' for both the past simple and past participle forms can help avoid this confusion.

Past tense quiz

Check your skills and find areas for improvement

### What is the past simple form of 'sum'?

The past simple form of 'sum' is 'summed.' It is used to describe an action that was completed at a specific time in the past. For example. 'Yesterday, I summed up the expenses for the month.'

### What is the past participle form of 'sum'?

The past participle form of 'sum' is also 'summed.' This form is used in perfect tenses to describe actions that were completed at some point in the past, often relating to the present. For example. 'By the end of the day, I had summed all the necessary figures.'

### How do I use 'summed' in a sentence correctly?

Using 'summed' correctly depends on the tense you are working with. For past simple, it's straightforward. 'I summed the numbers quickly.' For perfect tenses, you'll use it with a form of 'have'. 'She has summed the totals twice to ensure accuracy.'

### Can 'summed' be used in a non-mathematical context?

Yes, 'summed' can also be used metaphorically or in a broader sense to indicate bringing together various elements to form a conclusion or summary. For example. 'At the meeting, he summed his arguments effectively.' This usage still follows the same rules for past simple and past participle forms.