The Fascinating World of Right-to-Left Languages: Deep Dive

Bodhi Ramosreviewed byNataliia Afonina / more about Editorial Process8 min
Created: Jan 25, 2024Last updated: Mar 28, 2024
Right-to-Left Languages

Do you know how many languages are written from right to left? If not, you might be surprised to learn that only twelve of them exist. In today’s article, we’ll discuss the unique features of different script directions, their history, and examples of languages written left-to-right and vice versa. So, without further ado, let’s dive right into it.

Left to Right Reading and Beyond: Exploring Script Directions

The orientation and direction in which a script or written text is read play a crucial role in shaping a society’s communication and cultural aspects. Modern writing systems employ various script directions. Understanding them is beneficial not only in linguistics but also in appreciating the diversity of languages and cultures around the world. So, what are the main types of script directions?

  • Left-to-Right Language. LTR, or Left-to-Right Reading, is the most widespread script direction globally, used in English, French, Spanish, and others. It is associated with Western tongues and is the default direction for Latin alphabet scripts. The historical prevalence of LTR scripts is linked to the development of writing systems in ancient civilizations, such as Greek and Latin.
  • Right-to-Left Language. Such scripts are notably employed in Arabic, Hebrew, and Persian. RTL reading is deeply embedded in the cultural and religious practices of regions where these languages are spoken. The Quran, for example, is traditionally written in Arabic using RTL script direction.
  • Top-to-Bottom Language. Chinese, Japanese, and Korean are prominent languages that use TTB script direction. The characters are arranged in vertical columns from top to bottom, with columns read from right to left. While traditional TTB reading is still prevalent, many modern documents in East Asian languages can be written horizontally, especially in digital contexts.

These are the main script directions of the modern world. However, it wasn’t always like that – many ancient scripts were written much more spontaneously. As a result, each of the modern directions was influenced by different forms of writing from the past.

The History of Writing: How Directionality Evolved

Writing, as a means of communication, has undergone significant transformations, including the adoption of specific writing directions. Let’s delve into its brief history and explore how directionality evolved.

  • The earliest forms of writing were pictograms, simple drawings representing objects or ideas. They were initially created in a spontaneous manner, with no fixed directionality, and were used by ancient cultures around 3500 BCE.
  • The Sumerians developed cuneiform, one of the earliest writing systems, around 3200 BCE in ancient Mesopotamia. Cuneiform was initially written in various directions, being one of the first languages that write right to left, left to right, and even top to bottom.
  • The Phoenicians, around 1200 BCE, developed an alphabet consisting of consonants. It spread across the Mediterranean and became the basis for many later writing systems. The ancient Greeks adapted the Phoenician alphabet, and by the 5th century BCE, it was commonly written from left to right.

Printing technologies, especially the development of the printing press in the 15th century, played a crucial role in standardizing left-to-right writing in European languages. As books became more widespread, a consistent directionality became essential for printing efficiency. In the modern world, left-to-write reading remains prevalent. However, there are still many beautiful languages that read right-to-left. 

Popular Languages that Read Right to Left

Reading from right to left is a unique and distinctive feature of certain languages, primarily associated with scripts that evolved from ancient Semitic writing systems. Let’s discuss some of the most famous examples of such languages.


Arabic is a Semitic language with a rich history and a significant cultural and linguistic impact. It is the native language of more than 310 million people and serves as the liturgical language of Islam, as the Quran, the holy book of Islam, is written in it. Arabic is also one of the six official languages of the United Nations.

  • The language has a long and intricate history that spans over 1,500 years. It originated in the Arabian Peninsula and evolved from various Central Semitic languages. The earliest forms of Arabic can be traced back to the 6th century, and classical Arabic, the language of the Quran, emerged during the 7th century.
  • The Arabic script is considered the most popular language written right to left. It consists of 28 letters, each with different forms depending on its position in a word. The script is cursive, meaning that letters are connected, and diacritical marks indicate short vowels and other phonetic details. The script has influenced the writing systems of several other languages, including Persian and Urdu.
  • Arabic has profoundly influenced various languages, especially those in the Islamic world. Many words related to science, mathematics, astronomy, and philosophy were borrowed from Arabic into medieval European languages during the Islamic Golden Age. Additionally, the spread of Islam contributed to the adoption of Arabic loanwords in languages across Asia and Africa.

Arabic is spoken across a vast geographical area, from the Middle East to North Africa. It is the official tongue of 22 countries, making it an essential language in international diplomacy and trade. The influence of Arabic extends beyond the Arab world, with diaspora communities maintaining the language in various parts of the world.



Another example of the most popular language written from right to left is Hebrew. It is a Northwest Semitic tongue with unique historical and linguistic significance. It is the only Canaanite language still in use today, holding a central place in the religious and cultural traditions of the Jewish people. Here is an extensive overview of the Hebrew language:

  • It has ancient roots, with its earliest attestations dating back to the 10th century BCE. It evolved from a Canaanite dialect spoken in the region of ancient Israel. The Old Testament, or Hebrew Bible, composed over several centuries, is written in Biblical Hebrew.
  • The language is written from right to left and uses the Hebrew script, which consists of 22 letters. It is an abjad, a writing system representing only consonants, with vowel sounds often indicated by diacritical marks or inferred from context. The script is also used for writing Yiddish and Ladino, two Jewish languages with different linguistic origins.
  • Hebrew phonology is characterized by a system of guttural sounds, including three distinct consonantal phonemes. The grammar is predominantly based on a system of roots and patterns, similar to Arabic, where words are formed by combining root consonants with specific vowel patterns.

It is important to note that Biblical Hebrew, as found in the Hebrew Bible, has differences from modern one. Contemporary language has adapted to modern linguistic needs, incorporating new vocabulary, idioms, and expressions. While many Israelis can read Biblical Hebrew, there are linguistic gaps between the two forms, reflecting the evolution of the language over time.

Other languages

In addition to the abovementioned reading right to left languages, which are considered the most recognizable ones, there are many other tongues written in the same direction. Here are some common examples of such languages and their geographical locations:

  • Persian or Farsi – spoken primarily in Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan.
  • Urdu – spoken in Pakistan and India. 
  • Pashto – spoken by the Pashtun people in Afghanistan and Pakistan. 
  • Kurdish – spoken by the Kurds in the Middle East, including regions of Iraq, Iran, Turkey, and Syria. 
  • Sindhi – spoken in the Sindh region of Pakistan and parts of India. 
  • Dhivehi – written in the right-to-left Thaana script, unique to the Maldivian language.

These are only a few examples of which languages read right to left in the modern world. Of course, there are more of them. Some are quite popular in particular regions, while others remain in history.

Mastering Right-to-Left Reading with Promova

With the right resources, you can learn any language, even the one written in the opposite to the one you’re used to directions. The Promova application is a great choice for those aiming to become fluent in different tongues, even right-to-left Arabic. Here’s what you get after installing the app:

  • tons of useful materials sorted by proficiency levels;
  • engaging interactive lessons created by language experts;
  • bite-sized learning to avoid overwhelming amounts of information;
  • the ability to study English, Arabic, Korean, French, and other languages;
  • access to the information anywhere and anytime you want.

And many other wonderful features! The Promova application is your one-stop solution for fluency in different languages. It is available for both iOS and Android devices, so you can easily install it in a matter of seconds. 


To sum up, we can say that regardless of the directions of the script, mastering a language requires some patience and effort. So whether you’re learning English, Hebrew, or Korean, just make sure to remain consistent and put in some effort to achieve your fluency goals. And we are looking forward to seeing you in the next article!


What is Da Vinci’s mirror writing?

This unique technique involved writing text in reverse, such that it could only be deciphered when viewed in a mirror. The purpose behind it remains a subject of debate. Some theories suggest that it was a method to keep his notes private, while others propose that it was simply a result of his left-handedness, making it easier for him to write in reverse.

Is a language that has left to right script easier to learn than a right-to-left one?

It depends on one’s linguistic and cognitive background. People who have English, French, Spanish, or any other left-to-right language as their mother tongue might feel more comfortable understanding different languages in the same direction. However, those whose first language is written right-to-left, like Arabic or Hebrew, are familiar with right-to-left scripts, making it more straightforward.

What are some tips for convenient right to left reading?

Firstly, keep in mind that consistent practice is essential to understand the script, especially if you are unfamiliar with it. Another great tip is to use bilingual materials, where the script is presented alongside a language you are already proficient in; it helps in making connections between the new script and familiar words. Also, constantly try to memorize the unique features of characters and their variations; it is crucial for accurate reading.

What challenges do learners face when mastering right-to-left languages?

Of course, adjusting to the opposite script orientation can initially be disorienting for learners. It is one of the most common challenges they face when mastering the language written in the opposite direction. Moreover, readers accustomed to left-to-right scripts may find it challenging to adapt to the different visual processing demands of right-to-left scripts. Finally, some people may inadvertently reverse or mirror characters, leading to errors in reading and writing.


Nikolai MoodyFeb 15th, 2024
I appreciate the comprehensive coverage of the subject matter