a preposition is a part of speech that is used to link nouns, pronouns, and phrases to other words in a sentence. In the case of 'by,' it is used to indicate how something is done, as in 'We succeeded by working hard.' It can also be used to describe a location near or around something, as in 'The restaurant is located by the river.' It can also be used to indicate the means of something, as in 'We arrived by bus.' 'By' can be used to denote the author or creator of something, as in 'This book was written by Edgar Allan Poe.'
1. She was comforted by her friends.
2. The cat was sleeping by the window.
3. He achieved success by taking risks.
It is important to remember that prepositions are typically followed by nouns or pronouns, not verbs. Additionally, when used to describe a location, 'by' is usually followed by a noun phrase or clause, not a single noun.