the word 'including' is primarily used as a preposition. As a preposition, 'including' introduces items that are part of a whole or group. It emphasizes that what follows is part of a larger set or category.
'including' is followed by a noun, pronoun, or gerund. It is used to specify one or more members of a group without excluding others that might also apply.
The fruit basket has various fruits, including apples, oranges, and bananas.
Several students, including John and Mary, were recognized for their academic achievements.
The museum features artifacts from different cultures, including ancient Egyptian relics.
'including' suggests that the list provided is not exhaustive. For instance, in the first example, the fruit basket might also contain other fruits not mentioned. Avoid redundancy. Using 'including' with other similar phrases or words can be repetitive. For example, 'The fruit basket has various fruits, and these include apples, oranges, and bananas.' Here, 'and these include' is redundant. Ensure clarity. When using 'including,' it should be clear what group or category you're referring to. For instance, 'She loves fruits including apples.' is clear, but 'She loves including apples.' is ambiguous.