As an adjective, 'little' describes a small size, amount, or degree of something.
She has a little brother who is very mischievous.
There's little hope that the weather will improve by tomorrow.
The little details in the painting make it unique.
'Little' can sometimes be confused with 'few'. Use 'little' for uncountable nouns and 'few' for countable nouns. For example, 'little water' but 'few apples'.
as a pronoun, 'little' stands in for a small amount or number of something, often when the exact quantity is not specified.
Little was known about the mysterious artifact.
She said very little during the entire meeting.
Little remains of the ancient castle.
When using 'little' as a pronoun, it's often in contexts where the exact amount isn't specified but is understood to be small.
as an adverb, 'little' describes the extent or degree to which something is done or happens, often emphasizing a smaller degree than expected.
He speaks little about his personal life.
She cares little for what others think of her.
They traveled little last year due to the pandemic.
'Little' as an adverb often emphasizes a lesser degree than expected, so it's important to use it in contexts where this nuance is clear.