the adjective form of 'under' can be utilized in cases where something is less than a certain amount or degree. This usage of the word requires the inclusion of a comparison. Other common usages of this form include 'underdeveloped' and 'undercooked'.
1. He is under 20. (implies that he is less than 20)
2. It will be finished under four minutes. (suggests that the amount of time is less than four minutes.)
3. The sauce was under seasoned. (undercooked)
4. We were understaffed for the event. (underdeveloped)
it is essential to remember that 'under' implies a lack of something when used in this manner and is not interchangeable with similar words such as 'below'.
the prepositional form of 'under' expresses the idea of being below, beneath, or lower than an object or an area. It is commonly used with adverbials such as 'down' and 'up.' For example, if someone is under a bridge, they are below it, not above it. The rule for using 'under' in this way is that it must have a noun or another pronoun following it.
1. She crouched under the desk.
2. He looked up at the classroom, then he walked under it.
3. They waved to me from under the bridge.
common mistakes associated with using 'under' as a preposition include leaving out the necessary noun or pronoun, and confusion with the phrasal preposition 'underneath.''
the adverb form of 'under' is used to explain the manner or the degree to which something was done. Specifically, it is a comparison to a standard or expected level. Similarly, saying something was done 'under time' would imply it was done before the expected deadline.
1. It was done under the radar. (mean it was done in a discrete way that was unseen by most people)
2. The deal was done under the table. (deal wasn't transparent)
3. She completed the task under budget. (she fit the budget)
it is important to remember that 'under' implies that the action could have been completed to a higher degree, though this is not always the case. Tips for using 'under' in this capacity include being aware of commonly used phrases when using this form such as 'under the circumstances' and 'under the weather'.