How Many Words Do You Need to Know to Be Fluent in English?

Ellison Claptonreviewed bySana Liashuk / more about Editorial Process12 min
Created: Jan 17, 2023Last updated: Jan 17, 2024
Fluent in English

Language is a vast and complex phenomenon, constantly changing and evolving. It consists of many levels, from the basic sounds we make when talking to the meanings of the words and phrases we use. One area of language mastery is vocabulary – knowing the individual words that are used. That's why many people want to know how many words to learn to be fluent in English. The answer depends on factors like the context in which you're using the language, what sorts of topics you'd like to discuss, etc.

This article will provide a clear and concise answer to how many words in the English language you need to know to be fluent. We'll discuss different aspects and estimate the vocabulary required on each level. Also, we'll provide recommendations on how to become a true master of the English language. Read on and find out some valuable insights!

Defining what a word is

Before we can answer how many words you need to know to be fluent, let's define what we mean when talking about a "word." It is a complex concept that includes many elements. For our purposes, we'll determine it as a unit of meaning that can stand alone (on its own). Words are also the smallest units used to describe or refer to something. They are made up of one or two syllables in English. They can be nouns (people, places, and things), verbs (actions), adjectives (descriptions), adverbs (modifiers of meaning), as well as numbers.

However, there is controversy among linguists concerning what a word is. The debate focuses on the fact that every word comes in several forms. Therefore, some experts count each form of the same term as a separate word, while others don't. For instance, the term "run" consists of different forms: "running," "runs," "ran," and so on, which may be counted as one or four separate words, depending on the approach. So, this factor will significantly affect the estimate of how many words you need to know to be fluent in a language.

In most cases, the forms are counted as one because they all have the same core meaning, and understanding one of them will allow the person to understand all the others. So, we'll use this approach in our article for simplicity and consistency.

Passive and active vocabulary: understanding the two

One more factor to consider before we can estimate how many words you need to know to be fluent in English is the definition of what it means to "know" a word. This critical concept divides the whole language into two parts: passive and active vocabulary. Below, we'll break down what each of these groups includes:

  • Active vocabulary consists of words you are familiar with and can use spontaneously when speaking or writing about a topic. That means you recognize the term and its meaning, know how to pronounce it correctly, and how to put it into different sentences.
  • Passive vocabulary is the one you recognize but can't use actively immediately. For instance, if somebody uses a specific phrase that doesn't belong to your active vocabulary, you can still understand its meaning because of context clues. So, it is the one you comprehend but can't actively use.

As you can see, these two concepts are entirely different and have to be considered separately when answering the central question of how many words I need to know. For native and non-native speakers, the proportion of active and passive vocabulary is usually the following: 20-25% of a speaker's total knowledge belongs to their active repertoire, while 75-80% is in the passive form. It is essential to understand this division if you want to estimate your English level accurately.

Remembering these two notions is crucial for mastering a language. While active vocabulary enables you to speak and write correctly, passive knowledge allows you to comprehend what others say or read without struggling with unknown words in every sentence.

Should you focus on the number of words?

Although estimating the total of English words you need to know is one way to measure your level, it isn't the most effective. For non-native speakers, fluency depends on various factors like reading, writing, and speaking. Thus, a better measure of fluency is looking at how well someone can connect their words and phrases into context-specific conversations. Also, knowing fewer but more frequent words is often better than having a massive range of rare ones in your head.

Also, remember that "fluent speaking" isn't reducible to the knowledge of words and definitions. Fluency means expressing your thoughts easily, forming sentences on different topics, and joining in live conversations without hesitations and with understanding what others say.

There are more productive ways to improve your skills and become fluent than focusing on the amount of vocabulary you know. However, one way the number of words in English can help you is by providing metrics that allow you to quantify your progress. Also, the overall English word count can be helpful when preparing for language proficiency tests. It enables you to assess your current knowledge, pick up famous phrases in the test, and focus on learning the unknown ones from a specific set of contexts.

How many words exist in the English language in 2023

The exact number of words in the English language is unknown, as new terms are constantly being added to it. However, according to various estimates, there may be over a million currently existing words in English.

The number of words per language is constantly growing because new terms and meanings are attributed to old lexis. On average, English gains 3-5 thousand new words per year due to combining them and borrowing from other languages.

As a result, neither native nor non-native speakers can learn all the existing words in English. Not even language experts know them all. So, it's essential to understand that fluency does not necessarily mean knowing every word on the planet!


The CEFR scale and word count

Now that you know how many words are in the English vocabulary, let's look at the benchmarks used to define language fluency – the CEFR (Common European Framework of Reference for Languages). It consists of 6 levels: A1 and A2 (for beginners), B1 and B2 (intermediate), and C1 and C2 (advanced). Every level is related to different ability levels and corresponds to the number of words you know in a language. Below, we'll provide estimates of word count following the CEFR scale:

  • A1 level (elementary)It is the first level of language mastery. At this stage, learners understand simple phrases and use them in everyday situations with basic vocabulary knowledge (about 500 words). The terms cover topics such as family, job, school, and educational background. Also, beginners can recognize and use simple inflections of verbs and nouns.
  • A2 level (pre-intermediate)At this stage, the learner has a basic understanding of the language. They can form simple sentences and understand texts with straightforward structures and topics on familiar subjects. Here, vocabulary knowledge increases to 1000-1500 words with the correct verb tenses. The subjects are centered mainly around everyday situations, such as activities, hobbies, and interests.
  • B1 level (intermediate)Here, learners can understand the main points of complex conversations on familiar topics in spoken language or written form. They can use 2000-2500 words related to social relations and general spheres. Besides, they can construct complete sentences with mostly accurate grammar structures and ask questions in the language. 
  • B2 level (upper-intermediate). At this stage, you can use the language for daily activities, such as studying or working with various specific topical areas. Learners understand most major grammatical structures and apply 3000-3700 words in everyday situations. They understand straightforward texts on abstract topics, read for information gathering with ease, and write reports about them. 
  • C1 level (advanced). At this point, you can understand many nuances of the language. You have a well-developed command of it and know 4000-4700 words, effectively describing topics related to most aspects of life. This ability level involves understanding abstract texts, giving speeches on specific topics quickly, and writing reports or articles fluently while consistently expressing your opinion. The issues cover various areas such as politics, economics, etc.
  • C2 level (proficiency). At the highest level of language proficiency, you can understand and produce virtually any kind of discourse without difficulty, in either spoken or written form. You can communicate spontaneously in a more stylized way, using 5000+ words related to different topics.

So, now you know how many English words you need to master each level of CEFR. Generally speaking, knowing an average of 2000-3000 words should be enough for everyday conversations and basic understanding (A2-B1 level). To become proficient in English, you need a vocabulary of about 5000+ words.

How many words do you need to know to be fluent in English?  
How many words do you need to know to be fluent

While the CEFR scale provides a good benchmark for understanding language proficiency, the number of words one needs to know depends on individual and situational factors. Whether you have to become fluent in English for work, study, travel, or another purpose will influence the word count you should aim for.

If you desire to discuss various topics and understand contemporary discourse, 4000+ words should be sufficient. Conversing fluently on abstract subjects in professional contexts may require a more extensive vocabulary. For instance, if you're an interpreter or translator working with business negotiations and conferences, you should know at least 5000 words.

However, if you only want to be adequate in informal conversations and understand the main points of most topics, mastering 2000-3000 words should suffice – you won't have any problems with day-to-day communication.

How many words does the average American know: what do experts say?

There is a vast difference between native and non-native speakers regarding the number of words they know in English. Even if you have an impressive vocabulary, you will still be behind native speakers.

So, how many words does the average English speaker know? According to experts, the number is somewhere between 25000 and 35000. But it's no surprise that native speakers can have such a large vocabulary – after all, they've been surrounded by English since they were born.

The most interesting thing is that even native speakers don't use many words to communicate. According to estimates, they only use around 1000-3000 words in everyday speech, which is just a tiny fraction of the number they know. It is because we only need a limited number of words to communicate our thoughts and ideas in most situations.

Now that you are aware of how many words in the English language the average person knows and uses, you can better understand your goals. Practice makes perfect, so the more you use and read English, the better your vocabulary will become.

How to learn new words efficiently: 5 tips

Improving vocabulary is always a challenge. It requires time, dedication, and motivation to study glossary consistently. Many people give up because they find it monotonous or challenging to keep track of the new words they learn. But there are some things you can do to make the process more efficient and less daunting. Try to follow these five tips:

  • Learn a few words a day. It will only overwhelm you and make it more difficult to remember them all. Start with a few new terms daily, and gradually increase the number as you become more comfortable with the process. The key is to find a rhythm that works for you and stick to it. A great resource to help you is – it provides definitions, example sentences, and practice quizzes for more than a million words.
  • Constantly use new terms in speech. A great way to learn new words is to integrate them into your speech as much as possible. It will help you remember them better and make them feel more natural. When speaking, try to use the new words in different ways – for example, in various tenses or with different meanings.
  • Read aloud. It will help you remember the spelling and pronunciation. When you're reading, take your time and focus on each word individually. If you encounter a term you don't know, try to guess its meaning from the context – this will help you better understand and remember it.
  • Use visual associations. Our brains are excellent at forming associations, so look to use this to your advantage when learning new words. Think of a scene or image for each new word that will help you remember it. For example, if you're trying to learn “bizarre,” you could imagine a person with a strange haircut.
  • Watch English movies and TV shows. One of the best things you can do to improve your vocabulary is to watch English-language movies and TV shows. It will expose you to many different words and help you understand how they're used in context. Find films and programs that interest you so that the process goes smoothly. TEDEd is an excellent resource for finding educational videos on various topics.

With these tips, you'll be able to learn new words more efficiently and effectively. Just remember to be patient and consistent – Rome wasn't built in a day!

Learn new words with Promova

Do you want to learn new words in a fun and engaging way? Then try Promova app. It's an excellent tool for building vocabulary, as it entertainingly tests your knowledge of English words. We provide numerous exercises to practice using new words in different contexts.

If you want to improve other areas of your English, take advantage of our comprehensive platform. We provide individual and group classes and numerous courses to help you enhance your language skills. Depending on your needs and goals, we can tailor a program just for you.


Language learning is a continuous process. There are different ways of becoming fluent in English, and the number of words you need to know depends on many factors (your goals, type of vocabulary, etc.). In most cases, you need to know 2000-3000 words to reach a conversational level. To become proficient, you should master 5000 words or more.

Most importantly, don't focus only on the number of words you have to know. Try to enjoy the process and pay attention to all language skills – reading, writing, listening, and speaking. Pronunciation is also essential, so don't forget to work on that as well. This way, you'll learn English more effectively and use it in different situations confidently!


How many words are in the English language?

The exact number of words in the English language is unknown, as new terms are constantly being added to it. However, according to various estimates, there may be over a million currently existing words in English.

How many English words does the average person know?

According to various estimates, the average person knows about 20-35 thousand words in English. However, this number may vary depending on educational level and occupation.

How are active and passive vocabularies related to fluency?

Fluency does not mean knowing every word on the planet. Native and non-native speakers usually have 20-25% of their total word knowledge in their active repertoire, while 75-80% is in the passive form.

What are some methods for expanding your vocabulary?

Many methods can be used to expand your vocabulary, such as reading books and articles, watching English movies and TV shows, using visual associations, etc. The key is to find a method that works best for you and stick to it.


AshtonDec 12th, 2023
your article has undoubtedly expanded my understanding
Nancy Málaga CarrascoAug 10th, 2023
this page was interesting for me and motive me to learn more english easily. Than you!!
PromovaJul 18th, 2023
While vocabulary knowledge is important, fluency in English involves more than just knowing a certain number of words. Other aspects, such as grammar, pronunciation, listening skills, and cultural understanding, also contribute to overall fluency.
Libby MossJul 18th, 2023
Can the number of words known be a sole determinant of fluency in English, or are there other aspects to consider?